How were the 2022 censuses carried out in Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador and Paraguay?

This year several countries in the region carried out their Population and Housing Censuses, after rescheduling the initial dates due to the coronavirus pandemic. Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Paraguay are some of the nations that successfully carried out these processes.

This note reviews how population data was collected in these countries. The final results, depending on each country, will be delivered until next year.


It is the largest country in South America and the process was carried out by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), which was initially supposed to carry out the survey in 2020.

According to a note from O Globo, the last count of the Brazilian population was carried out between August and November 2010.

By law, the census must be carried out in the country every 10 years and, therefore, it had an initial date of 2020, but it was postponed to the following year due to the pandemic.

In 2021 it had to be postponed again due to lack of budget and for this reason it was only carried out from August 1 of this year until November. IBGE deployed 183,000 census takers to interview citizens in 87 million residences in Brazil’s 5,568 municipalities, reported EFE.

The entity calculated that the number of inhabitants in the country jumped from 190.8 million counted in 2010, when the last census was carried out, to 215 million in the count carried out as of August.

Two questionnaires were prepared, one of 26 questions, which will be answered in about five minutes by 89% of the interviewees, and another of 77 questions, much more complete and which required 16 minutes, which was applied to 11% of those questioned.

The basic questionnaire included questions on identification, information on the inhabitants of the residence, characteristics of the address, racial characteristics, civil registration, education, and income. The broader questionnaire, which will be used for an extensive study by household samples, collected data on work, marriage, family nucleus, fertility, religion, migration and mobilization.

Other specific questionnaires were used for residences on indigenous reservations and traditional communities, as well as residences with people with disabilities or diagnosed with mental disorders.

The visit to the residences took about two and a half months and the data analysis work began in October.

The first results, which include the size of the population, were indicated to be released next December.

But the report with the final data will be known in 2023. “The result of the sample takes a little longer, because it requires a very sophisticated statistical treatment. Depending on the question, the calculations take a little longer. These data only throughout 2023,” Jefferson Mariano, a socioeconomic analyst at IBGE, explained to CNN Brazil in August.

This year’s census was carried out with digital tools and geolocation technologies. The work allowed Brazil to also have an exact map of the number and location of residences in all the municipalities of the country.


The National Census of Population, Households and Housing of Argentina was carried out in two instances and was carried out by the National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (Indec).

In the first, a digital questionnaire was enabled that was available to complete between March 16 and May 18. In a second instance, the face-to-face modality was implemented through the territorial sweep, which took place on Wednesday, May 18, Census Day, declared a holiday.

On that day, the census takers visited all the households in Argentina: they conducted face-to-face interviews with those who had not completed the digital questionnaire and requested proof of completion from those who had completed it.

For the first time, a derecho census was carried out, that is, people were counted according to their usual place of residence (where they spent most of the time during the week).

On May 19, 2022, the first provisional results were announced with the total population by sex registered during the day: 47,327,407 people, according to the trend of the field operation. Post-census consistency and validation processes were applied to these first results once the recovery stage provided for in the census methodology was completed.

On August 18, 2022, it was reported that the technical teams of the National Directorate of Social and Population Statistics continued to work on processing the preliminary results of the 2022 National Population, Household and Housing Census.

The Institute carried out two pilot tests. The first was done between October and November 2017 and the second in September 2019.

In each of them, different tools were evaluated: the type of census that would be carried out, the duration of the interview, the questions of the census records, logistics, the monitoring system, cartography and data capture, among others. .

For the first time and it was a novelty, the digital census was available between March 16 and May 18. With this tool, the population was able to complete the census questionnaire online in advance from any electronic device with Internet access (computer, tablet, or cell phone).

This methodology, which was used for the first time to respond to the census, allowed the population and those who took the census to save time.

Access to the “Digital Census” became available from the site two months prior to Census Day.

To enter, a unique housing code (5-digit alphanumeric code) had to be generated using the address information. With that code, you could access the digital questionnaire and answer all the questions. At the end, a proof of completion of the digital census (6-digit alphanumeric code) was generated, which had to be presented to the census takers who visited all the homes in the country on Census Day, May 18.

The population registered through the digital census was 23,813,723 people, 50.32% of the total, based on the percentage trend of the field operation.

The INDEC schedule established the dissemination of the first definitive data eight months after the census and a year and a half with all the processed data, that is, in mid-2023, according to its owner Marco Lavagna before he carried out the survey. .

From October 1 to 31, Ecuador launched the online census and the face-to-face phase from November 7 to November 18.

In Paraguay, the census took place on November 9.

In both cases, the survey must be carried out after 10 years.

How were the 2022 censuses carried out in Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador and Paraguay?